Commentary on:
Privilege for printing music for the Indies (1559)

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Primary Sources on Copyright (1450-1900)
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Identifier: s_1559a


Commentary on “Privilege for printing music for the Indies (1559)”

José Bellido (Birkbeck College, University of London)

Raquel Xalabarder (Universidad Oberta de Catalunya)

Ramón Casas Valles (Universidad de Barcelona)

 
Please cite as:
Bellido, J., Xalabarder, R. & Casas Valles, R. (2011) ‘Commentary on Privilege for music-printing to the Indies (1559)', in Primary Sources on Copyright (1450-1900), eds L. Bently & M. Kretschmer, www.copyrighthistory.org


 

1.         Full Title

2.         Abstract

3.         Textual Adventures       

4.         Privileged Positions  

5.         Colonial Privileges 

6.         Privilege for printing music for the Indies

7.         References

  

1.         Full Title

Privilegio para imprimir libros de música para las Indias  (1559)     

  

2.         Abstract

 

Book privileges also crossed the Atlantic Ocean to reach the New World in the sixteenth century. This commentary describes some of their trajectories and the ways in which Spanish colonial policies led to an increase in the granting of privileges for the book trade in the Indies. It reveals that colonial book privileges were produced by specific agencies and circulated through their own singular routes.

  

3.         Textual Adventures  

 

Perhaps the most attractive feature of Leonard’s Books of the Brave is the description of the journey to the New World as providing a route for the circulation of fiction books, in spite of legal prohibitions and religious petitions.[1] Focusing on seamen as readers and narrating their voyages as alongside the emergence of literary markets, Irving A. Leonard (1896-1962) challenged the tendency to study the regulation of the book trade between metropolis and colonies without questioning the movement of literature throughout official and unofficial routes that united and constituted the Spanish Empire. Furthermore, Leonard disputed claims that the Catholic Monarchs’ attempts to ban popular and fantastic literature from being shipped to the Indies were successful.[2] The maritime route was not only a carrera but also an adventurous and entertaining place to read, live and dream about books. The law forbidding popular and fantasy books was not effective.[3] Because of this, the first significant market of readers to emerge as a result of the discovery of the Americas was made up of those enticed by the adventure of journeying to the Indies. This explains why booksellers and printers in the Iberian Peninsula suddenly began amending their businesses in order to attract overseas readers by publishing specific types of literary products such as chivalric novels.[4]

 

Interestingly, reading was not the only literary experience of the transatlantic journey that royal and ecclesiastical households attempted to control. Writing about the Indiesrapidly became a cause for concern. Not only were religious works surveyed, but colonial tensions and conquerors’ deliriums meant that distinctions and classifications between works of fact and fiction would resurface. Roughly speaking, the creation and circulation of informational works were increasingly at the centre of Spanish regulatory measures.[5] Historical chronicles, maps and navigational charts became particularly sensitive (and useful) material for the colonial enterprise.[6] In contrast to the overlooking of irregularities and the degree of indifference demonstrated by the main colonial authorities towards the circulation of fiction, for informational items, a system of direct surveillance and resolute assessment prior to the granting of printing privileges was developed.[7]

 

 3.         Privileged Positions  

 

If there was anyone who knew the tastes of the colonial reading public well and the way to overcome bureaucratic technicalities in order to reach and to stimulate this new public, it was Jacobo Cromberger or Jácome Alemán (1472-1535), a German bookseller and fine printer, who was the founder of one of the most famous printing dynasties in Spain.[8] He was an “enterprising publisher”,[9]  who had already obtained printing privileges in the Kingdom of Castile.[10]  Several years later, a twist of fate put him in a privileged situation.[11] The discovery of the new continent placed his workshop in an ideal position to acquire vital bureaucratic knowledge and to conquer this distant public.[12] He was based in the chief printing centre receiving book orders for the New World: Seville.[13] For both booksellers and readers, this town was the gateway to the colonial market.[14] It was the place in which colonial agencies such as the Council of the Indies (Consejo de Indias) and the House of Trade (Casa de Contratación) had established their headquarters.[15]

  

While different book merchants in Sevilleand other parts of Spaininitiated contacts with the transatlantic market via mailing lists, dispatches to members of religious orders about to embark and printing on-demand,[16] the Crombergers pioneered several strategies to secure the commercial viability of the colonial book trade.[17] In doing so, they managed privileges and contracts in a very particular way.[18] They simultaneously combined the lobbying for printing colonial exclusivities with the development of networks of agents abroad. On July 25, 1525, Jacobo Cromberger was given a special privilege for trade with the Indies.[19] It was not exactly a printing privilege but a privilege for the exportation of books.[20] For a foreigner like him, this was a precious grant that could be translated into an exclusive right to sell books in New Spain (Mexico). Moreover, the enterprising spirit of the Crombergers’ publishing house did not end there. As distant, but exclusive, suppliers of books to the colonial market, they took different steps to increase their business connections with the Americas.[21] Not only did they appoint agents to help them to acquire printing privileges granted by colonial authorities such as the viceroy and archbishop of Mexico;[22] several years later, Jacobo’s son, Juan Cromberger (d. 1540), would also manage to establish a printing press in Mexico.[23]

 

4.         Colonial Privileges

 

 Applications for book privileges for the Indies were frequently directed to the main colonial agency (the Council of the Indies). The Council had been appointed by royal decree in 1556, as the privilege-granting authority of books destined for the Indies.[24] Despite efforts from the Council of the Indies to centralise the system and to make the law effective, it has been suggested that many printers and peninsular authorities overlooked the regulation,[25] exporting and printing books without the colonial agency’s concession but with privileges for the Indies which had been granted by other authorities. With the arrival of the printing press in the Americas, the possibility to request a privilege also appeared. In fact, there are several reports of authorities in the colonies (e.g. viceroys) granting book privileges.[26]

 

Nonetheless, both in the metropolis and in the colonies, it is interesting to note that a very particular range of interests was reflected in the colonial privilege repertoire. Of all the colonial book privileges granted, the most precious subject matter for applicants was undoubtedly the right to print indulgences for the Indies.[27] However, there were other printed resources which were equally desirable. Translated and tailored for missionary tasks, educational works (ABCs, first-readings, manuals or cartillas and catechisms) rapidly became the second most important material eagerly petitioned by the printers and booksellers who focused their business on the overseas trade.[28] As instruments of the colonial enterprise, these works were consistently demanded, used and consumed.[29] It is therefore not a surprise that a publishing house as astute as the Crombergers obtained a five-year privilege to print the Cartilla y doctrina en lengua de indios de Michoacán in 1538.[30] Konrad Haebler (1857-1946) once suggested that the difficulty of translating these works into the Nahuatl language was the main reason behind the Crombergers’ decision to establish an office in Mexico.[31] However, the patterns of conquest and missionary objectives may also explain the fierce competition that arose around requests for colonial privileges for devotional and religious literature.[32] If there was a reliable and stable demand for literature, it was in this genre, which was tightly controlled by religious orders travelling to the New World. [33]

  

Literature, didactic manuals and religious books were not the only productions to travel to the New World.[34] Indeed, musical instruments and music books also made the same journey.[35] There is, in fact, a connection between the demand for religious literature, educational works and the success of plainsong and polyphonic music books.[36] While reading and writing attracted the regulatory and everyday activities of the colonial enterprise,[37] singing and the circulation of textual resources upon which this activity was learnt and performed were also the focus of attention from Spanish authorities since they constituted an important aspect of missionary tasks. As the musicologist Robert M. Stevenson has noted, “[t]he Franciscans, Dominicans and Augustinians always made music a principal subject in the schools which they set up wherever they were sent to evangelize the Indian”.[38]

 

If music facilitated the process of religious conversion and was frequently played in places such as colonial cathedrals,[39] music printing exclusivities rapidly attracted book merchants and printers such as the Crombergers, who were engaged in transatlantic commercial adventures.[40] It also caused some writers of music and composers to apply for colonial privileges.[41] Among the privileges granted for music printing, we can include a ten year concession given to Alonso Pérez, a clergyman from a prominent Spanish printing area (Medina del Campo).[42] In his petition to the Council of the Indies, he defined himself as a writer of “missals” (mass books) and requested a twenty year privilege for the publishing of chant books in Peru and New Spain.[43] Although the application and privilege granted are interesting per se, because they reveal the discretion of the Council in reducing the term of the privilege to ten years, the main reason for including this case is based on the performance and applicability of the concession. A remarkable conflict over this specific privilege and the right to print music books to be sent to the Indies arose between this applicant and the well-known printer Francisco Fernández de Córdoba in 1559.[44] A commentary on this litigation is found in the following entry: s_1559b.

 

 

7.         References

 

Calvo, H. “The Politics of Print. The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America” Book History, vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277-305

Castañeda, C. Imprenta, impresores y periódicos en Guadalajara, 1793-1811 (Guadalajara, México, Museo del Periodismo y las Artes Gráficas-Ed. Ágata-Ayuntamiento-Ágata Editores, 1999)

Collantes de Terán, F. “Un taller alemán de imprenta en Sevilla en el siglo XV” Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, 1931, pp. 145-165.

Delgado Casado, J. Diccionario de impresores españoles, siglos XV-XVII, 2 vols. (Madrid: Arco-Libros, 1996)

De los Reyes Gómez, F. El Libro en España y América. Legislación y Censura (siglos XV-XVIII) (Madrid, Arco Libros, 2000)

Escudero y Perosso, F. Tipografía hispalense: anales bibliográficos de la ciudad de Sevilla desde el establecimiento de la imprenta hasta fines del siglo XVIII   (Madrid, Imprenta de Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1894)

Garone Gravier, M. “¿Ornamentos tipográficos? Las mujeres en el mundo del libro antiguo. Algunas noticias biobibliográficas” in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P. (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia  (México, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 163-214;

Gembero-Ustárroz, M. “Circulación de libros de música entre España y América (1492-1650): Notas para su estudio” in Fenlon I and Knighton, T. (eds) Early Music Printing and Publishing in the Iberian World (Kassel, Rechenberger, 2006) pp. 147-179

Gonzalbo Aizpuru, P. “Leer de la infancia a la vejez. El buen orden de las lecturas en la Colonia” in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P.  (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia (México, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 21-54;

González Sánchez, C. A. Homo Viator, homo scribens. Cultura gráfica, información y gobierno en la expansión atlántica (siglos xv-xvii) (Madrid, Marcial Pons, 2007)

Greer Johnson, J. The Book in the Americas (Providence, John Carter Brown, 1988)

Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988).

Griffin, C. “La imprenta en México y sus oficiales” in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P.  (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia  (México,UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 3-19.

Haebler, K. Early Printers of Spain and Portugal (London, Bibliographic Society, 1897)

Hazañas y la Rúa, J. La imprenta en Sevilla (Sevilla: Diputación Provincial de Sevilla, Junta de Patronato del Archivo, 1945-1949)

Leonard, I. A. Books of the Brave (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992)

Leonard, I, A. Romances of Chivalry in the Spanish Indies (Berkeley, University of California Press, Publications in Modern Philology, vol. 16, n. 3, 1933), pp. 217-372

Marín López, J. “Libros de música para el Nuevo Mundo a finales del siglo XVIII: el proyecto editorial del impresor José Doblado" in Navarro Antolín, F. (ed.) Orbis Incongnitvs. Avisos y Legajos del Nuevo Mundo. Homenaje al Profesor Luis Navarro García, 2 vols. (Huelva: Universidad de Huelva y Asociación Española de Americanistas, 2007-8), vol. 2, pp. 137-152.

Martínez, J. L. El libro en Hispanoamérica. Origen y desarrollo (Salamanca, Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez, 1987)

Norton, F. J. Printing in Spain 1501-1520 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1966)

Pérez Pastor, C. La imprenta en Medina del Campo (Madrid, establecimiento Tipográfico «Sucesores de Rivadeneyra», 1895)

Pike, R. Enterprise and Adventure. The Genoese in Seville and the Opening of the New World (Cornell University Press, 1966)

Rojo Vega, A. "Los grandes libreros españoles del siglo xvi y América" Cuadernos hispanoamericanos, 500 (Feb. 1992) pp. 115-131

Rueda Ramírez, P. J. Negocio e Intercambio Cultural. El comercio de libros con América en la carrera de Indias (siglo XVII) (Sevilla: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad, 2005)

Rueda Ramírez, P. “La circulación de libros entre el viejo y el nuevo mundo en la Sevilla del siglo XVI y comienzos del siglo XVII” Cuadernos de Historia Moderna, n. 22, 1999, pp. 79-105

Schäfer, E. El Consejo Real y Supremo de Indias vol. 1 (Junta de Castilla y León, Marcial Pons, 2003)

Stevenson, R. M. The Music of Peru (Washington, Pan American Union) pp. 42-112

Stevenson, R. M. Music in Mexico (New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1952)

Stevenson, R. M. Music in Aztec & Inca Territory (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1968)

Thompson, L. S. Printing in Colonial Spanish America (Hamden, The Shoe String press, 1962) pp. 32-33.

Toribio Medina, J. Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810), tomo VI (Santiago de Chile, Impreso en casa del Autor, 1902)

Toribio Medina, J. Historia de la Imprenta en los antiguos dominios españoles de América y Oceanía, vol 1 (Santiago de Chile, Biblioteca Nacional, 1958)

Toribio Medina, J. La imprenta en México (1539-1821) tomo 1 (Amsterdam : N. Israel, 1965) at lviii.

Torre Revello, J. El Libro, la imprenta y el periodismo en América durante la dominación española (New York, Burt Franklin, 1973)

Torre Revello, J. “Prohibiciones y Licencias para imprimir libros referentes a América" Boletín del Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, ns. 51-52, 1932, pp. 17-47

Zúñiga Saldaña, M. “Privilegios para imprimir libros en la Nueva España, 1714-1803. La renta de un monopolio editorial” Estudios del Hombre, Universidad de Guadalajara, 2005 pp. 59-86

 

 

.

 

 

 



[1] Leonard, I. A. Books of the Brave (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992)

[2] The legislation passed was the royal decree April 4, 1531 which reads as follows: “the Queen, acting as sovereign in the absence of her imperial lord, to the House of Trade in Seville: I have been informed that many books of fiction in the vernacular which are unrelated to religion such as Amadis and others of this sort go to the Indies; since this is bad practice for the Indians and something with which it is not well for them to be concerned or read, I command you, therefore, from the time henceforth neither to permit nor allow any person at all to take any books of fiction and of secular mattes there, but only those relating to the Christian religion and morality upon which the above-mentioned Indians and other inhabitants of the Indies may practice the art of Redding, and with which they my busy themselves; no other kind is to be allowed” [translated in Leonard I. A., Books of the Brave (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992) p. 81]. See also Leonard, I, A. Romances of Chivalry in the Spanish Indies (Berkeley, University of California Press, Publications in Modern Philology, vol. 16, n. 3, 1933), pp. 217-372; 219; Toribio Medina, J. Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810), tomo VI (Santiago de Chile, Impreso en casa del Autor, 1902) at xxvii-xxviii.

[3] Torre Revello, J. El Libro, la imprenta y el periodismo en América durante la dominación española (New York, Burt Franklin, 1973) p. 38; Leonard, I. A. Books of the Brave (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992) p. 75; Torre Revello, J. “Prohibiciones y Licencias para imprimir libros referentes a América" Boletín del Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, ns. 51-52, 1932, pp. 17-47; 31; Rueda Ramírez, P. J. Negocio e Intercambio Cultural. El comercio de libros con América en la carrera de Indias (siglo XVII) (Sevilla: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad, 2005) pp. 34-35.

[4] Leonard, I, A. Romances of Chivalry in the Spanish Indies (Berkeley, University of California Press, Publications in Modern Philology, vol. 16, n. 3, 1933, pp. 217-372); see also Calvo, H. “The Politics of Print. The Historiography of the Book in Early Spanish America” Book History, vol. 6, 2003, pp. 277-305;

[5] Toribio Medina, J. Historia de la Imprenta en los antiguos dominios españoles de América y Oceanía, vol 1 (Santiago de Chile, Biblioteca Nacional, 1958) p. 329.

[6] González Sánchez, C. A. Homo Viator, homo scribens. Cultura gráfica, información y gobierno en la expansión atlántica (siglos xv-xvii) (Madrid, Marcial Pons, 2007) pp. 137-149; Torre Revello, J. “Prohibiciones y Licencias para imprimir libros referentes a América" Boletín del Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, ns. 51-52, 1932, pp. 17-47; 29.

[7] Torre Revello, J. El Libro, la imprenta y el periodismo en América durante la dominación española (New York, Burt Franklin, 1973) pp. 63-67. Toribio Medina, J. Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810), tomo VI (Santiago de Chile, Impreso en casa del Autor, 1902) at xxxi-xxxii

[8] Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988). See also Haebler, K. Early Printers of Spain and Portugal (London, Bibliographic Society, 1897) pp 58-59; Delgado Casado, J. Diccionario de impresores españoles, siglos XV-XVII, vol. 1 (Madrid : Arco-Libros, 1996) p. 170; Toribio Medina, J. La imprenta en México (1539-1821) tomo 1 (Amsterdam : N. Israel, 1965) at lviii.

[9] Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) p. 37; Griffin, C. “La imprenta en México y sus oficiales” in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P.  (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia  (México,UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 3-19; 5.

[10] Escudero y Perosso, F. Tipografía hispalense: anales bibliográficos de la ciudad de Sevilla desde el establecimiento de la imprenta hasta fines del siglo XVIII   (Madrid, Imprenta de Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1894) pp. 142-143; Norton, F. J. Printing in Spain 1501-1520 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1966) p. 123.

[11] Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) p. 30.

[12] Norton, F. J. Printing in Spain 1501-1520 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1966) p. 13.

[13] Rueda Ramírez, P. “La circulación de libros desde Europa a Quito en los siglos XVI-XVII” Procesos. Revista Ecuatoriana de Historia, vol. 15, 2000, pp. 3-20; 4-5; Griffin, C. “La imprenta en México y sus oficiales”  in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P.  (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia  (México, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 3-19; 6.

[14] Hazañas y la Rúa, J. La imprenta en Sevilla (Sevilla: Diputación Provincial de Sevilla, Junta de Patronato del Archivo, 1945-1949) p. 119; Rueda Ramírez, P. “La circulación de libros entre el viejo y el nuevo mundo en la Sevilla del siglo XVI y comienzos del siglo XVII” Cuadernos de Historia Moderna, n. 22, 1999, pp. 79-105.

[15] Schäfer, E. El Consejo Real y Supremo de Indias vol. 1 (Junta de Castilla y León, Marcial Pons, 2003) p. 32 and p. 62; see also  Pike, R. Enterprise and Adventure. The Genoese in Seville and the Opening of the New World (Cornell University Press, 1966) pp. 20-47.

[16] Rueda Ramírez, P. J. Negocio e Intercambio Cultural. El comercio de libros con América en la carrera de Indias (siglo XVII) (Sevilla: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad, 2005) p. 98; Rueda Ramírez, P. “La circulación de libros entre el viejo y el nuevo mundo en la Sevilla del siglo XVI y comienzos del siglo XVII” Cuadernos de Historia Moderna, n. 22, 1999, pp. 79-105; 83.

[17] Rueda Ramírez, P. “La circulación de libros entre el viejo y el nuevo mundo en la Sevilla del siglo XVI y comienzos del siglo XVII” Cuadernos de Historia Moderna, n. 22, 1999, pp. 79-105; 84.

[18] Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) pp. 56-63; Castañeda, C. Imprenta, impresores y periódicos en Guadalajara, 1793-1811 (Guadalajara, México, Museo del Periodismo y las Artes Gráficas-Agata Editores, 1999) pp. 32-33.

[19] Toribio Medina, J. Historia de la Imprenta en los antiguos dominios españoles de América y Oceanía, vol 1 (Santiago de Chile, Biblioteca Nacional, 1958) p. 342-343; Hazañas y la Rúa, J. La imprenta en Sevilla (Sevilla: Diputación Provincial de Sevilla, Junta de Patronato del Archivo, 1945-1949) p. 128; Martínez, J. L. El libro en Hispanoamérica. Origen y desarrollo (Salamanca, Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez, 1987) p. 25; Rojo Vega, A. "Los grandes libreros españoles del siglo xvi y América" Cuadernos hispanoamericanos, 500 (Feb. 1992) pp. 115-131; 116.

[20] Griffin, C. “La imprenta en México y sus oficiales”  in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P.  (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia  (México, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 3-19; 8. De los Reyes Gómez, F. El Libro en España y América. Legislación y Censura (siglos XV-XVIII) (Madrid, Arco Libros, 2000) p. 68.

[21] Leonard, I. A. Books of the Brave (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992) pp. 95-97; Haebler, K. Early Printers of Spain and Portugal (London, Bibliographic Society, 1897) p. 63.

[22] The agents appointed were first Diego de Mendieta and after him, Juan Pablos (Giovanni Paoli) and Guido de Labezaris; see Delgado Casado, J. Diccionario de impresores españoles, siglos XV-XVII, vol. 1 (Madrid: Arco-Libros, 1996) p. 173;  Leonard, I. A. Books of the Brave (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992) p. 97; Toribio Medina, J. La imprenta en México (1539-1821) tomo 1 (Amsterdam : N. Israel, 1965) at lix; Hazañas y la Rúa, J. La imprenta en Sevilla (Sevilla: Diputación Provincial de Sevilla, Junta de Patronato del Archivo, 1945-1949) p. 120; Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) p. 80.

[23] Toribio Medina, J. Historia de la Imprenta en los antiguos dominios españoles de América y Oceanía, vol 1 (Santiago de Chile, Biblioteca Nacional, 1958) p. 344-347; Delgado Casado, J. Diccionario de impresores españoles, siglos XV-XVII, vol. 1 (Madrid: Arco-Libros, 1996) p. 173-174; Greer Johnson, J. The Book in the Americas (Providence, John Carter Brown, 1988) p. 5; Collantes de Terán, F. “Un taller alemán de imprenta en Sevilla en el siglo XV” Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, 1931, pp. 145-165; 146; Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) pp. 83-97.

[24] Torre Revello, J. El Libro, la Imprenta y el Periodismo en América durante la dominación española (New York, Burt Franklin, 1973) p. 39; Toribio Medina, J. Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810), tomo VI (Santiago de Chile, Impreso en casa del Autor, 1902) at x.

[25] Toribio Medina, J. Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810), tomo VI (Santiago de Chile, Impreso en casa del Autor, 1902) at xiii-xiv

[26] Garone Gravier, M. “¿Ornamentos tipográficos? Las mujeres en el mundo del libro antiguo. Algunas noticias biobibliográficas” in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P. (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia  (México, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 163-214; 189; Torre Revello, J. El Libro, la Imprenta y el Periodismo en América durante la dominación española (New York, Burt Franklin, 1973) p. 39

[27] Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) p. 58.

[28] Zúñiga Saldaña, M. “Privilegios para imprimir libros en la Nueva España, 1714-1803. La renta de un monopolio editorial” Estudios del Hombre, Universidad de Guadalajara, 2005 pp. 59-86; 64-70; Martínez, J. L. El libro en Hispanoamérica. Origen y desarrollo (Salamanca, Fundación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez, 1987) p. 30; some examples can be read in Garone Gravier, M. “¿Ornamentos tipográficos? Las mujeres en el mundo del libro antiguo. Algunas noticias biobibliográficas” in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P. (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia  (México, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 163-214; 190.

[29] Thompson, L. S. Printing in Colonial Spanish America (Hamden, The Shoe String press, 1962) pp. 32-33. Castañeda, C. Imprenta, impresores y periódicos en Guadalajara, 1793-1811 (Guadalajara, México, Museo del Periodismo y las Artes Gráficas-Ágata Editores, 1999) p. 35.

[30] Griffin, C. The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) p. 84; Leonard, I. A. Books of the Brave (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992) p. 97.

[31] Haebler, K. Early Printers of Spain and Portugal (London, Bibliographic Society, 1897) pp. 63-64. See also Thompson, L. S. Printing in Colonial Spanish America (Hamden, The Shoe String press, 1962) pp. 12-13.

[32] Castañeda, C. Imprenta, impresores y periódicos en Guadalajara, 1793-1811 (Guadalajara, México, Museo del Periodismo y las Artes Gráficas-Ed. Ágata-Ayuntamiento-Ágata Editores, 1999) p. 43 (añalejos); Toribio Medina, J. Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810), tomo VI (Santiago de Chile, Impreso en casa del Autor, 1902) at xxii-xxiii.

[33] Crombergers’ agent, Juan Pablos (d. 1560) published the Breve y más compendiosa doctrina Christiana en lengua Mexicana y Castellana (1536). References to this work can be read in Toribio Medina, J. La imprenta en México (1539-1821) tomo 1 (Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1965) p. 1 and Greer Johnson, J. The Book in the Americas: The Role of Books and Printing in the Development of Culture and Society in Colonial Latin America (Providence: The John Carter Brown Library; Meriden Stinehour Press, 1988) p. 5.

[34] De los Reyes Gómez reports a privilege for the Lexicón o Vocabulario de la lengua general del Perú in De los Reyes Gómez, F. El Libro en España y América. Legislación y Censura (siglos XV-XVIII) (Madrid, Arco Libros, 2000) p. 78.

[35]Gembero-Ustárroz, M. “Circulación de libros de música entre España y América (1492-1650): Notas para su estudio” in Fenlon I and Knighton, T. (eds) Early Music Printing and Publishing in the Iberian World (Kassel, Rechenberger, 2006) pp. 147-179; Marín López, J. “Libros de música para el Nuevo Mundo a finales del siglo XVIII: el proyecto editorial del impresor José Doblado" in Navarro Antolín, F. (ed.) Orbis Incongnitvs. Avisos y Legajos del Nuevo Mundo. Homenaje al Profesor Luis Navarro García, 2 vols. (Huelva: Universidad de Huelva y Asociación Española de Americanistas, 2007-8), vol. 2, pp. 137-152; 140.

[36]  Stevenson, R. M. Music in Aztec & Inca Territory (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1968) pp. 154-166.

[37] Gonzalbo Aizpuru, P. “Leer de la infancia a la vejez. El buen orden de las lecturas en la Colonia” in García, I. & Rueda Ramírez, P.  (comps) Leer en tiempos de colonia (México, UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010) pp. 21-54; 25-32.

[38] Stevenson, R. M. The Music of Peru (Washington, Pan American Union) pp. 42-112

[39] Stevenson, R. M. Music in Mexico (New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1952) pp. 52-62; Stevenson, R. M. Music in Aztec & Inca Territory (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1968) pp. 154-166.

[40] Crombergers’ inventory constitutes an indicia that they were sent to the Indies, see Gembero-Ustárroz, M. “Circulación de libros de música entre España y América (1492-1650): Notas para su estudio” in Fenlon I and Knighton, T. (eds) Early Music Printing and Publishing in the Iberian World (Kassel, Rechenberger, 2006) pp. 147-179; 157.

[41] “Real Cedula por la que se concede a Juan Pérez Materano, Deán de la Catedral de Cartagena de Indias, licencia para imprimir y vender en exclusive durante los diez años siguientes, en todas las Indias, el libro de canto de órgano y canto llano que había escrito, al precio que tasare el Consejo de Indias, Valladolid, 19 de diciembre de 1554 [AGI, Indiferente, 427, L. 30, 72r-72v]” in Gembero-Ustárroz, M. “Circulación de libros de música entre España y América (1492-1650): Notas para su estudio” in Fenlon I and Knighton, T. (eds) Early Music Printing and Publishing in the Iberian World (Kassel, Rechenberger, 2006) pp. 147-179; 174-175

[42] Pérez Pastor, C. La imprenta en Medina del Campo (Madrid, establecimiento Tipográfico «Sucesores de Rivadeneyra», 1895); Rojo Vega, A. "Los grandes libreros españoles del siglo xvi y América" Cuadernos hispanoamericanos, 500 (Feb. 1992) pp. 115-131.

[43] See s_1559a.

[44] De los Reyes Gómez, F. El Libro en España y América. Legislación y Censura (siglos XV-XVIII) (Madrid, Arco Libros, 2000) p. 78; Delgado Casado, J. Diccionario de impresores españoles, siglos XV-XVII  vol I (Madrid, Arco-Libros, 1996) pp. 229-230.


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